Coronary calcium index (CCI) is linearly related to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, CCI scoring may be a valuable noninvasive imaging modality to perform cardiovascular risk stratification in asymptomatic patients, providing predictive information beyond traditional risk factors (the Framingham risk score, ATP III, SCORE scale). The absence of coronary artery calcification is associated with low annual risk of cardiovascular events (0.06–0.11 %) and 10-year survival (99.4 %). It certainly provides background for the aggressive management of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients. Sclerosis and calcification of heart valves and thoracic aorta have factors and pathophysiological mechanisms common to atherosclerosis. Correlation of these parameters with CCI, identification of calcification in the descending aorta, aortic and mitral valves may serve as an additional criterion of increased cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic and low-symptomatic patients. At the same time, there is still no proven causation link between atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and osteoporosis.