The aim of our study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS). In the first stage of the study we performed retrospective analysis of case reports of 109 reproductive age women with PCOS who were divided into three groups according to body mass index. In the second stage of the study a prospective examination of 90 young women with PCOS (mean age 29.1±1.4 years) who were divided into groups according to body mass index and the presence of MS was conducted. The study also included two groups of comparison – 15 women with metabolic syndrome without PCOS and 30 apparently healthy women. A wide range of cardiovascular risk factors was found in PCOS patients, including dyslipidemia (82.2 %), mainly due to the increase of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (70 %), abdominal obesity (78.8 %), insulin resistance (75.5 %), hypertension (31.1 %), impaired glucose tolerance (27.7 %) and diabetes (3.3 %). We found that appearance of abdominal type of obesity was more important for the formation of cardiovascular risk in PCOS women than body weight growth and was associated with a spectrum of metabolic disorders such as hypertriglyceridemia (66.6 %), low levels of HDL cholesterol (50.0 %), diabetes (12.5 %) and increased percentage of arterial hypertension (70.8 %) and glucose intolerance (45.8 %). In order to determine cardiovascular risk in PCOS women younger than 40 years SCORE scale should be used, but the possibility of single risk factor detection should be considered, including total cholesterol > 8 mmol/l or LDL cholesterol > 6 mmol/l, diabetes and atherosclerotic plaques of carotid arteries. These factors attributed 7.7 % of young women to high or very high cardiovascular risk.