The article provides overview of recent data regarding impact of gene polymorphism of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) on the cardiovascular system. The authors reviewed the impact of gene polymorphism of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) on myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy. It is concluded that the level of aldosterone may be genetically based, which may influence cardiovascular risk. CYP11B2 –344C/T is associated with higher frequency of ischemic stroke than homozygous variants. Data regarding impact of polymorphism aldosterone synthase gene upon risk of myocardial infarction are controversial. 344T allele is more often associated with larger left ventricular dimensions. CYP11B2 –344C/T is associated with greater incidence of non-family atrial fibrillation in patients with essential hypertension.