Aorta dissection is one of the most serious complications of aorta aneurysm that causes high mortality. Necessity of timely diagnosis and early medical treatment requires knowledge of additional factors associated with aortic aneurysm which may become predictors of dissection. Further, this allows to determine the risk of aneurysm development, define more clearly the way patients should be treated, and estimate the necessity of early surgery. We reviewed the research of the aortic aneurysm and its complications that reflects contemporary views on the problem. We examined the origin of the aortic aneurysm and its complications, differences in
etiology and structural peculiarities of aortic aneurysm.