This article is a literature review about left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), its methods of evaluation and influencing factors. LVH is a risk factor of cardiovascular events in patients with arterial hypertension. The main risk factor of LVH is high blood pressure (BP). Prevalence and significance of LVH led to looking for ways of its prevention and regression that became the secondary end point of evaluation of antihypertensive drug therapy efficacy. Long term BP control is the first action in this direction. For LVH regression evaluation, special ECG and echocardiography criteria were used. There are no persuasive data about effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs in regression of LVH. It seems that renin-angiotensin system blockers are more potent agents and nonvasodilative beta-blockers are less effective in LVH regression. Studying of biochemical, functional and structure aspects of fibrotic myocardial changes and left ventricular remodeling under the treatment stays perspective.