This article reviews literature dedicated to the problems of etiology and pathogenesis of myocarditis. The main causes that lead to the development of the inflammatory process in myocardium are described in details. Most attention is paid to description of the pathological mechanisms leading to the development and progression of inflammatory process in myocardium, such as effects of different cytokines, antimyocardial antibodies and
catecholamines. It is obvious that the pathogenesis of myocarditis is studied poorly, and further investigations are needed for better understanding of mechanisms that lead to myocardial damage in myocarditis.