RealiseAF registry is an international, cross-sectional, observational study including more than 10 000 patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation (AF) designed to receive contemporary, reliable information regarding patients’ characteristics, risk factors (RF), anamnesis, symptoms of AF, its influence upon quality of life and treatment of AF in real settings. This publication presents results received in 700 patients (Mean (SD) age 62.2 (10.6) years, 62.3 % – men), included into the study in Ukraine. Paroxysmal AF was diagnosed in 136 (19.5 %) patients, persistent – in 194 (27.8 %), permanent – in 333 (47.6 %), form of AF was not determined because of first episode in 36 (5.2 %) patients. Among RF age more than 50 years in men and more than 65 years in women was registered in 70.9 %, family history of premature cardiovascular diseases – in 34.5 %, of premature sudden death – in 8.8 %. Obesity was detected in 42.8 %, arterial hypertension – in 82.8 %, current smoking – in 13.3 %, diabetes mellitus – in 15.6 %, dyslipidemia – in 66,8 % patients. Heart failure was diagnosed in 85.7 % patients, coronary artery disease – in 65.1 %, peripheral artery diseases – in 6.9 %, cerebrovascular diseases – in 21.9 %, valvular heart diseases – in 18.7 %. Mean (SD) thromboembolic risk by CHADS2 scale was 2.4 (1.3); this parameter was 2 and more in 77.7 % patients. At least one cardiovascular event leading to hospitalization during previous 12 months was registered in 33.5 % patients. Adequate control of AF (sinus rhythm or AF with heart rate ≤ 80 per minute) at the moment of examination was achieved in 54.0 % patients. At least one antithrombotic agent was prescribed in 94.3 % patients, antiplatelets – in 63.1 %, oral anticoa gu lants – in 36.1 %, injectable anticoagulants – in 11.3 %. In general, Ukrainian population was characterized by high burden of RF, concomitant cardiovascular diseases and frequent hospitalizations due to cardiovascular events. AF was not adequately controlled according to the study criteria in 46 % patients. Choice of antithrombotic agents (anticoagulants or antiplatelets) prescribed to the patients with respect to their CHADS2 score significantly differed from recommendations included into 2006 ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines on treatment of AF.