Objective of the study was to evaluate sinus rhythm (SR) maintenance and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with persistent non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardioversion. We analysed data from 544 patients, mean age 58.7±8.0 years, with mean duration of the disease 65,3 months. Duration of follow-up was 9±3 years. Ischemic heart disease was found in 75% patients and hypertension – in 66% patients. During follow-up after cardioversion sinus rhythm was maintained in 18.5%, persistent with new AF episodes – in 49.6%, and evolution to permanent AF occurred in 31.9% of patients. In 109 (20%) of patients following cardiovascular events were observed: stroke – in 48 patients (8.9%), myocardial infarction – in 47 patients (8.6%), cardiovascular death – in 19 patients (3.5%), non-cardiac death – in 4 patients (0.74%). Third grade arterial hypertension was significantly more often observed in patients with cardiovascular events.