Review concerns the novel scientific approach studying the importance of micro-RNAs (miRs) as the putative novel markers and therapeutic targets in cardiovascular pathology. MiRs were first described in nematode worm
only in 1993. Then in a very short period of time their presence was documented in variety of plants, animals, viruses. Up to date over 700 miRs have been registered in humans in the central database of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. MicroRNAs are short, 19-24-nucleotide-long non-coding RNAs involved in the control of gene expression, which as it seems can play an important role in developmental biology and regulation of many
physiological and pathological processes in the adult organisms, including cardiovascular system. The article contains information about biogenesis of miRs, supposed mechanism of action, cardiac-expressed molecules
(miR-1, -133, -206, -208), as well as miRs, which probably play a significant role in maintaining endothelial homeostasis (miR-143/145, -126, -92 cluster). According to the latter data, miRNAs have been implicated in
myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, and vascular disease. The detection and quantification of circulating microRNAs may represent a novel noninvasive tool to detect and monitor disease activity. Recently, miRNAs have received much attention regarding their suitability as biomarkers for disease, for example, myocardial infarction.