In the work we analyzed results of the contemporary clinical and fundamental research on the problem of subclinical atherosclerosis diagnosis, predicting of its clinical course and earlier definition of the cardiac endpoints. The results of this analysis allow to conclude that silent atherosclerotic vascular damage is present in the significant part of the middle age population in absence of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The vascular calcification is one of the most important and prevalent mechanisms of atherosclerosis, the earliest and significant sign of its presence. Moreover, atherosclerosis is a generalized process. Simultaneous visualization of vessels in different vascular regions allows to improve significantly its diagnostic accuracy, especially in combination with defining existence and severity of vascular calcification. Mechanisms of atherosclerosis determined so far may be a target for medications slowing the progression of atherosclerosis and preventing clinical endpoints.