N.M. Tereshchenko Exercise training as an integral part of cardiac rehabilitation in patients in the early post-infarction period: clinical and functional parallels

Material and methods. The study involved 91 male patients aged 33-68 (average age (52.3±1.5) years with Q-wave MI. In the first hours after MI onset, all patients had urgent coronary angiography, a stent was inserted into the culprit coronary artery and drug therapy was administered in accordance to the current protocols and guidelines. Depending on the amount of physical rehabilitation, the patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included 47 patients who underwent physical cycling course training (three times a week, a total of 30 sessions), group 2 consisted of 44 patients whose rehabilitation consisted in distance walking and remedial exercises. The examinations were carried out at discharge from the inpatient department (12–15 days). Both clinical, instrumental and biochemical tests were performed after 4, 6 and 12 months following MI.

Results. At the initial stage, the patients of either group didn’t demonstrate differences in clinical indicators or medical history data. At the first survey, the threshold power level and the cost of the work performed according to the indicator of the ratio of dual product to the level of performed work (DP/A) didn’t differ significantly. After 30 training sessions, the threshold power increased significantly (125.0 (125.0–140.0) W in group 1 at the value of DP/A 0.92 (0.76–1.17) units). In group 2, the threshold power increased to 100.0 (75.0–100.0) W, but at the level of DP/A (1.73±0.18) units. One year after MI the level of threshold power increased to 140,0 (125.0–150.0) W at low cost (1.17 (0.98–1.32) units) in group 1, while in group 2 the level of threshold power decreased and approached the data of the first survey (75,0 (75.0–100.0) W) with a significant increase of the cost of work (2.41 (1.73–3.36) units). Such dynamics of the indicators of exercise tolerance was accompanied by changes of hemodynamic indices.

Conclusions. Exercise training program increased physical tolerance with better parameters of bicycle ergometry after its interruption and preserving of the effect during one year after MI. This was accompanied by optimization of the remodeling and restoration of wall kinesis. The exercise training program contributed to improving the physical fitness in patients with late opening of the infarction-related coronary artery disease and incomplete revascularization. The effect of exercise training was short-lived and limited in multifocal lesions.

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