The aim of our study was to determine the link between the endocrine activity of adipose tissue, intima – media thickness (IMT), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation depending on body mass index and insulin resistance. We examined 174 patients with metabolic syndrome (women – 88, men – 86), which were divided into the clinical groups according to body mass index and HOMA. We determined body mass index, glucose, insulin,
HOMA, leptin, adiponectin, the ratio leptin/adiponectin, blood lipids, IMT in the common carotid artery, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. In women we observed significant relation between progression of insulin resistance, increase of IMT and deterioration of endothelial function; in male patients the tendency to increase of IMT and reduction of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was shown. It has been proved that irrespective of gender increase of body mass thickness was associated with increase of intima – media complex of the common carotid artery and decrease of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation index. Progression of insulin resistance was associated with atherogenesis in the common carotid artery.