In patients with essential hypertension (EH) salt sensitivity (SS) increases risk of cardiovascular events. Some demographic, dietary and clinical markers of SS, especially race (afro-americans), sex and age (advanced aged men), usage of oral contraceptives and appearance during postmenopausal period have been established. Risk of SS is increased in patients with advanced EH. The role of SS both as a risk factor of renal insufficiency and as a consequence of low birth weight is theoretically substantiatedCompared to salt resistant patients, SS ones have more prevalent metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, impared glucose tolerance, resistance to insulin, non-dipping profile (24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, microalbuminuria, structural and functional large artery remodeling. In SS patients salt load decreases efficacy of beta-blockers and blockers of renin-angiotensin system, increases efficacy of diuretics and doesn’t affect calcium channel blockers.