The aim – to investigate gender differences of plasma activity of pro-inflammatory cytokine – interleukin-18 (IL-18) and anti-inflammatory cytokine – interleukin-10 (IL-10) in relation to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and concomitant pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Material and methods. 104 men (n=45, 43.3 %) and women (n=59, 56.7 %) aged 32-80 years with arterial hypertension were examined. Anthropometric measurements included height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurements of carbohydrates profile, including glucose, insulin, HbA1c plasma levels, and lipid panel. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in non-diabetic hypertensive patients. Circulation plasma levels of IL-18 and IL-10 were detected by ELISA.
Results. Patients were divided into groups depend on glycemic profile: group 1 (38.5 %) – patients with AH without carbohydrates metabolism disorders, group 2 (32.7 %) – patients with AH associated with pre-diabetes, group 3 (28.8 %) – patients with AH and T2DM, and also in each group different gender subgroups were studied.
Involvement of immune inflammatory activation in development of glucometabolic disorders in patients with AH was confirmed by elevated IL-18 plasma activity in patients with AH and concomitant pre-diabetes and T2DM, as well as significant relationships between IL-18 and carbohydrates metabolism parameters. Increased anti-inflammatory cytokine – IL-10 content in patients with AH and pre-diabetes was found. This may be regarded as a protective response to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines activity.
Conclusion. Decreased IL-10 plasma levels in patients with AH and T2DM and relationships with carbohydrates metabolism parameters confirm role of low IL-10 levels in development of T2DM. Gender peculiarities of interleukins activity in patients with AH depending on concomitant pre-diabetes or T2DM were detected. Predominant immune inflammatory activity in hypertensive women without glucometabolic disoders and with pre-diabetes was shown. In AH and concomitant T2DM opposite tendency was observed, i.e. significantly higher inflammatory activity in men compared to women.