This review presents recent data on mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning in normal and pathological conditions (dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension). We
considered impact of age and physical activity on protection of myocardium from ischemic injury. The information about drugs which may induce ischemic preconditioning is provided. The data regarding positive impact of
this phenomenon on the stem cell treatment are also reviewed.