The review shows the participation of smooth muscle cells, macrophages, bone marrow stem cells in the calcification of arteries, the effect of microcalcifications and diffuse calcium accumulation on the vulnerability of plaque. The relationship between calcification of coronary arteries and such major factors of cardiovascular risk as age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus has been clarified. Data on the effect of inflammation on calcium deposition in the vascular wall and the effect of statins on the calcification of atherosclerotic plaques are presented. Assessment of the presence and severity of vascular calcification can significantly improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and the prognosis of its course. Calcification mechanisms may be targets for pharmacological interventions, having significant impact on the development and progression of atherosclerosis.